So, I had The Talk with my 10-year old son today. He was a confused and even became a bit emotional as the gravity of the facts emerged. The discussion was, of course, about copyright law.
He had burned a CD containing tracks from his iTunes library to give to a friend as a birthday gift. So, we talked about how this was in fact stealing and that we should just go buy a new copy the music outright, etc. Here’s a sampling of from his questions during the discussion:
Q: What if my friend has some songs on his iTunes, but his CD burner is broken. I have the same songs, so can I burn them from my computer and give him the CD? A: Um, maybe that’s OK. I don’t know.
Q: How come it’s OK to lend out PlayStation disks? A: Easy (whew!), because while they borrow it, you are not using it (note to self: is that really legal?).
Q: So, can I burn a CD, give it to someone, and just not listen to the songs myself until I get the CD back? A: Um, you’re late for school – off you go.
Like software architecture (and legal systems), copyright is a principles-based rather than a rules-based concept because it’s impossible to precisely spell out, up-front, all actions that constitute non-compliance. The principle says you can’t disseminate the work of others without permission. Laws assign penalties to broad forms of violations like producing counterfeit software. Court precedents over time develop the more specific lists of what’s OK (backing up your iTunes) and not OK (giving out copies).
Software architecture works the same way. Software architectures are collections of principles that define guidance and boundaries for producing software systems. Lower-level guidance comes in the form of standards and practices for developing a software system that conforms to the principles in the architecture.
Principles-based regulation means that laws are enforced by examining the intent of people rather than reconciling deeds against a roster of specifically banned actions. The Enron scandal, it’s said, grew unnoticed for years because Enron parsed the regulations in bad faith and created scenarios that somehow convinced Author Anderson to sign off on audits. Enron and Arthur Anderson both knew that accounting principles (and the law) were being violated but felt relatively safe because any by-rote analysis of their accounts against the rules (as written) would come up clean.
UK regulators like to say they have no Enron situations because UK accounting standards are principles-based from the outset. I don’t know how true that is, but the infamous U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 directs the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission to examine the feasibility of moving the U.S. to a principles-based accounting standards system.
Getting (at last) back to software architecture, I work for an independent software vendor (ISV) in the enterprise resource planning (ERP) market. One of the characteristics of an ISV is that we are highly principles-based and generally don’t rely on thick volumes of specific details telling our engineers exactly what to do. Sure, we have standards around code and UI styles. But developers are taught the principles within the product architectures and the intent behind the functionality. That in turn helps prevent issues like “the spec didn’t specifically say the shipment quantity had to be a positive number”.
As we expanded product development overseas, we didn’t rely on outsourcing to contractors. We tried it, but it was too hard to convey the architectural principles and the business intent to a transient staff 13.5 time zones away. Without the principles as context, we had to type reams more specs and it the results consistently had to be reworked. We wondered whether our processes were just plain sloppy. But that wasn’t the case. Our development model just didn’t fit an environment where people came only with bespoken capabilities and never developed any lasting interest in our objectives.
Instead, we opened development offices staffed by our own full-time employees. That meant we could convey our architectural principles, development standards, and train the teams up on business functions like cost accounting and manufacturing. Permanent employees doing the work, no matter where in the world, turned out to be cheaper than just outsourcing to a contractor. More importantly, we realized much better agility.
The problem with developing long lists of rules is that they are expensive to maintain and easy to evade when the pressure is on. I would rather state a principle like “creating new records for purpose X MUST minimize the DB batch request count and NOT hold locks on Y, under typical loads, to significantly affect other processes” and then test for compliance rather than using, say, code reviews and a checklist to attempt to spot things that potentially violate the principles.
For us – a 400-person development organization – agility means efficiently releasing products year-after-year that incorporate rapidly changing markets. Believe it or not, technology shifts aren’t nearly as acute to us as market shifts from compliance and globalization. I never need to find 150 Ruby programmers on a moment’s notice. I need 150 people to understand how a chart of accounts works and how to make one that can be legally used worldwide.
So, while we don’t do many scrums in our product development cycle, we also don’t do waterfall management. The middle ground works because our jobs revolve around incremental evolution of a few systems. It’s an easy place for principles-based management to work. Software architecture perfection to me is nothing but a short list of general capabilities and a long list of non-functional requirements. Those are the principles. Standards and practices do the rest.
My son says he likes knowing how music is copyrighted. The thought he might be letting down people who really own the recordings actually horrified him (much more than me, anyway). By understanding the principles, he can (hopefully) figure out for himself what scenarios violate the law. Now, I guess we’ll have to do the “fair use” talk pretty soon, though. What other talks am I forgetting about?